How to Write a Research Proposal
- A research proposal summarises your intended research.
- Your research proposal will be used to show you understand the topic, and that the university are able to support your study.
- The length of a research proposal varies and is typically specified by either the programme requirements or the supervisor upon request. 1500 – 3500 words is common.
- The typical research proposal structure consists of: Title, Abstract, Background and Rationale, Research Aims and Objectives, Research Methodology, Timetable, and a Bibliography.
It’s no secret that your research proposal will play a huge role on whether your PhD application is successful. Besides this, the number of applicants has been steadily increasing over the years. A ‘good’ research proposal is no longer enough – it needs to be exceptional if you want any chance of standing out amongst all the other applications. This guide lays out how to write a research proposal with everything your potential supervisor will be looking for.
What Is a Research Proposal?
A research proposal summarises your intended research. It outlines what your research questions are, why they’re important to your field and what knowledge gaps surround your topic. It also outlines your research in terms of your aims, methods and proposed timetable.
What Is It Used for and Why Is It Important?
Your research proposal be the most important part of your application. It will be used for:
- Determining you understand the topic and can communicate complex ideas.
- Confirming they have the adequate expertise to support you in your research topic.
- Applying for funding or research grants to external bodies.
How Long Should My Research Proposal Be?
Some universities will specify a word count all students will need to adhere to. You will typically find these in the description of the PhD listing. If they haven’t stated a word count limit, you should contact the proposed supervisor to clarify whether there are any requirements. If not, aim for 1500 to 3500 words (3 to 7 pages).
What Should I Include in My Research Proposal?
Your title should indicate clearly what your research question is. It needs to be simple and to the point – if the reader needs to read further into your proposal to understand your question, your title isn’t clear enough.
Directly below your title, state the topic your research question relates to. Whether you include this information at the top of your proposal or choose to insert a dedicated title page is your choice and will come down to personal preference.
If your research proposal is over 2000 words, consider providing an abstract. Your abstract should summarise your question, why it’s important to your field and how you intend to answer.
Only include crucial information in this section – 250 words should be sufficient to get across your main points.
3. Background and Rationale
First, specify which field of study your research falls in. This will help set the context for your literature review and will help the reader anticipate the direction of your proposed research.
Following this, include a literature review. A literature review summarises the existing knowledge which surrounds your research topic. This should include a discussion of the theories, models and bodies of text which directly relate to your research question. As well as discussing the information available, discuss those which aren’t. In other words, identify what the current gaps in knowledge are and discuss how this will influence your research.
Last, discuss the key debates and developments currently at the centre of your research topic.
4. Research Aims and Objectives
Identify the aims and objectives of your research. The aims are the problems your project intends to solve; the objectives are the measurable steps and outcomes required to achieve the aim.
In outlining your aims and objectives, you will need to explain why your research is worth exploring. Consider these aspects:
- Will your research solve a problem?
- Will your research address a current gap in knowledge?
- Will your research have any social or practical benefits?
If you fail to address the above questions, it’s unlikely they will accept your proposal – all PhD projects must show originality and value to be considered.
5. Research Methodology
The following structure outline is recommended:
Sample/Population – Discuss your sample size, target populations, specimen types etc.
1. Sample/Population – Discuss your sample size, target populations, specimen types etc.
Methods – What methods have you considered, how did you evaluate them and how did you decide on your chosen one?
2. Methods – What methods have you considered, how did you evaluate them and how did you decide on your chosen one?
Data Collection – How are you going to collect and validate your data? Are there any limitations?
3. Data Collection – How are you going to collect and validate your data? Are there any limitations?
Data Analysis – How are you going to interpret your results and obtain a meaningful conclusion from them?
4. Data Analysis – How are you going to interpret your results and obtain a meaningful conclusion from them?
Ethics – Are there any potential implications associated with your research project? This could either be to research participants or to your field as a whole due to your findings. How are you going to monitor for these implications and what types of preventive steps will you need to put into place?
5. Ethics – Are there any potential implications associated with your research project? This could either be to research participants or to your field as a whole due to your findings. How are you going to monitor for these implications and what types of preventive steps will you need to put into place?
Outline the various stages of your project and provide an approximate timeline for each stage. This should include key milestones such as your literature review, collecting and analysing data, writing up your thesis and sitting your viva. You could summarise your plan as a Gantt chart similar to the below:
Plagiarism is taken seriously across all academic levels, but even more so for doctorates. Therefore, ensure you provide a full list of the specific references you have used in writing your proposal. Besides this, try to adopt the same referencing style as the University you’re applying to uses. You can easily find this information in the PhD Thesis formatting guidelines published on the University’s website.
Questions & Answers
Can You Change a Research Proposal?
Yes, your research proposal outlines the start of your project only. It’s well accepted that the direction of your research will develop with time, therefore, you can revise it at later dates.
Can the Proposed Supervisor Review My Draft Proposal?
Whether the supervisor will review your draft will depend on the individual. However, it is highly advisable that you at least attempt to discuss your draft with them. Even if they can’t review it, they may provide you with useful information regarding their department’s expertise which could help shape your proposal. For example, you may amend your methodology should you come to learn that their laboratory is better equipped for an alternative method.
How Should I Structure and Format My Proposal?
Ensure you follow the same order as the headings given above. This is the most logical structure and will be the order your proposed supervisor will expect.
Most universities don’t provide formatting requirements for research proposals, however, we recommend that you follow the same format they require for their PhD thesis. This will give your reader familiarity and their guidelines should be readily available on their website.
Last, try to have someone within the same academic field or discipline area to review your proposal. The key is to confirm that they understand the importance of your work and how you intend to execute it. If they don’t, it’s likely a sign you need to rewrite some of your sections to be more coherent.
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